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It's current controlled to make clear, stable colloidal silver that's rich in isolated ions and small particles!

Animation - Electrolysis.
The process that creates colloidal silver.

Here is a basic description of the process of electrolysis as it is used to create electrically isolated silver (EIS), better known as Colloidal Silver. In reality, the electro-chemical process is immensely complicated, especially in very close proximity to the electrodes.

These observations apply to distilled water and 2 silver electrodes. Variations from this set-up will produce different results. (For example, using tap water instead of distilled)

The red arrows indicate the direction that electrons are flowing through the electrodes. SWAP Alternating Polarity mode in the Silver Well reverses this current direction every few minutes.

(To view this in continuous motion your browser preferences>web content must allow looping.)

Anode.

The anode is the positive electrode. Electrons move up through the positive electrode, into the generator and DC power supply, then down into the negative electrode on the other side. Current flow in solid metals is via electrons on the surface of the metal. When an electron departs from a silver atom, that atom becomes a silver ion (Ag+) which is soluble in water. So it is this electrode that 'donates' silver.

Cathode.

The cathode is the negative electrode. It's this electrode that sometimes gets a fuzzy coating. In this system it receives electrical current from 'above' via the movement of free electrons. It will also become lightly coated with silver oxides (grey) and silver hydroxide (white). Some silver ions are also created near the cathode as hydronium ions react with silver oxide.

Ag+ Silver Ions (Cations).

Electrons flowing 'up' the silver anode leave silver ions behind. (Ag+). These silver ions are repelled off the wire and into the water by the 'like charge' of other Ag+ silver ions. In this 'dissolved' state they are attracted to the negative electrode (cathode) but stirring prevents most of them from reaching the other side. Most ions will remain isolated in solution but some will contribute to the formation of colloidal silver particles and oxides.
A black/brown silver oxide may plate the anode. Silver ions in solution increase the conductivity of the water and can therefore be measured (approximately) with a PPM or EC meter.

Hydrogen Bubbles.

Free electrons travelling 'down' the negative electrode (cathode) are 'pushed' into the water by electrical pressure. These electrons 'split' water molecules into hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions. The hydroxyl ions travel to the anode where they combine with silver ions to form silver hydroxide. The hydrogen ions become hydrogen gas molecules. Most of this gas will collect into bubbles buoyant enough to float to the surface, but some bubbles will remain adhered to the electrode where they become coated in a soft grey/white silver hydroxide.

Stirrer.

The green bar represents the stirring system of a Silver Well Generator. We use either a magnetic stirrer which rotates a plastic tube inside the jar, or a simple thermal system that gently warms the water and creates convection currents. Without stirring, silver ions and particles will aggregate into excessively large particles, or be lost in the formation of oxide or metallic silver on the electrodes or the jar.

Anions.

To complete the electric circuit, electricity (represented by the red dots) must flow through the water. Electric current flows through water via 'charge carrying' silver and hydroxyl ions. Ions that drift from the cathode to the anode are called anions. Distilled water has very few available ions so, initially, the current flow is very low. But as more silver and hydroxyl ions are released into the water the conductivity and electrical current increases, and the process accelerates.

Generator.

The smart circuitry in the Silver Well generator controls the electrical current so the electrolytic process is maintained at an optimum level to produce colloidal silver that is rich in isolated ions and sub-microscopic particles.

Oxides on the Cathode.

Provided the water is stirred most silver ions from the anode stay in solution, but some do reach this side and coat the negative electrode with metallic silver, silver hydroxide (white) or silver oxide (grey). They can also adhere to bubbles. If the system experiences 'run away' these ions can also plate the glass with a mirror-like film of metallic silver.

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